Smaragdus of St. Mihiel, Expositio in Regulam Sancti Benedicti

Quisquis ad aeternum mavult conscendere regnum
... (praefatio)
Obsculta. Haec nos hortantis beati verba...
Monachorum quattuor esse genera manifestum est. "Monachus greca... (ch. 1)

  • Spannagel, Alfred and Pius Engelbert, Smaragdi abbatis Expositio in Regulam S. Benedicti, Corpus Consuetudinum Monasticarum, vol. 8, Siegburg: Franz Schmitt 1974.
  • Patrologia Latina, vol. 102, col. 689B-932C, online.
See also the pages on Smaragdus and the Expositio Regulae on Das Digitale Repertorium and Mirabile.

  • Barry, David, Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel. Commentary on the Rule of Saint Benedict, Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications 2007.
  • Hauschild, Katarina, Smaragdus von Saint-Mihiel. Prolog des Kommentars zur Benediktusregel, St. Ottilien: Eos Verlag 2010 (only prologue).
Last updated: Feb. 9, 2016


Alençon, Bibliothèque Municipale 5
s. XII
fol. 122-229v

St-Martin in Sées; catalogue; one page digitized.
Angers, Bibliothèque Municipale 321 (312)
s. XV
fol. 1-76v

St-Serge et St-Médard, Angers; catalogue; one page digitized.
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Theol. lat. fol. 332  1470
fol. 2-102v

Liseborn; catalogue
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Theol. lat. fol. 339 
s. Xex   
fol. 1-89v 
Ms. B
Groß St. Martin, Cologne; Werden?; catalogue
Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale 670-73 (3708)
fol. 17-95
Ms. Bx Groß St. Martin, Cologne; catalogue
Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale 5194-96 (3714)
s. XII
fol. 1v-100r

Gembloux; catalogue
Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale 11144 (4510) s. XII2
fol. 1v-159

St-Laurent, Lüttich; catalogue
Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale II 985
s. XIV
fol. 1-191

Cambrai, Bibliothèque Municipale B 821 (726)
fol. 1-143v

St-Sépulcre, Cambrai; catalogue; several pages digitized.
Cambridge, University Library Ee. II.4
s. Xmed
fol. 49-191
Ms. C
2 fol. in Oxford, Bodleian Library lat. theol. c. 3; Glastonbury ?; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Clermont-Ferrand, Bibliothèque Municipale 155 (136)
s. XV
fol. 1-152v

Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek Gl. Kgl. S. 176
s. XV
fol. 1-134v
Ms Kb Cismar; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek Gl. Kgl. S. 1374  1490
fol. 37v-198
Ms Kb1 Cismar; not yet digitized.
Douai, Bibliothèque Municipale 337
s. XV/
fol. 1-175v

Anchin; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Douai, Bibliothèque Municipale 338 1472
fol. 1-149

Hasnon; catalogue; initials digitized.
Douai, Bibliothèque Municipale 341 s. XIII/ XIV
fol. 17-84v

St-Géorge, Douai; catalogue; several pages digitized.
Durham, Cathedral Library B.III.8
fol. 273

Hill Manuscript Library; not yet digitized.
Gent, Universiteitsbibliotheek 498
s. XII
pp. 1-265

image; description
Kórnik, BIblioteka Kórnicka Polskiej Akademii Nauk 124 (I F 90 a) s. X2
fol. 1v-161v
Ms K description
Le Mans, Bibliothèque Municipale 32
s. XV
pp. 1-557

St-Vincent, Le Mans; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Le Mans, Bibliothèque Municipale 349 s. XII
fol. 2-136v

St-Vincent, Le Mans; catalogue; one page digitized.
Lisboa, Biblioteca Nacional cod. Alc.263
fol. 9-244v

Alcobaça; image.
Lobbes, Bibliothèque Publique 25
fol. 1-33v

Le Liget
Loches, Médiathèque Jacques Lanzmann 25
s. XIII 33 fol.

London, British Library Add. 16961
s. IXex
fol. 3-182v
Ms. L Stavelot; catalogue; not yet digitized.
London, British Library Add. 25491
fol. 3-294

Spanish; catalogue; not yet digitized.
London, British Library Add. 30055
s. X or IXex   
fol. 232-237   
Cardeña ?; catalogue; not yet digitized
London, British Library Royal 10 A. XIIII
fol. 3-156v

Canterbury; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Madrid, Archivo Historico Nacional Clero. Carpeta 1030, num. 24
s. X

Nájera (possibly same Ms. as Silos frg. 5-16, see below)
Madrid, Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia Aemil. 26
s. Xin
fol. 5-144v
Ms. M St. Millán de la Cogolla; catalogue; image (search on Smaragdus)
Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional 18672-99
s. IX
fol. 268-175v

Manchester, John Rylands Library ms. lat. 104 (116)
s. IXex
fol. 1-185v
Ms. Mn
mutilated at beginning and end; catalogue
Mantova, Biblioteca Teresiana (Biblioteca Comunale) 330 (C.III.10)

Mons, Bibliothèque de la Ville 64/198
fol. 1-162v

Cambron; catalogue
Montserrat, Biblioteca del Monestir 793-I
s. X
1 fol.
Sant Benet de Bages, Manresa; catalogue
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliohtek Clm 26313
fol. 1-96r

not yet ditigitzed
New Haven, Ct., Yale University, Beinecke Library 481.9 s. IXex 1 fol. ch. 72-32 catalogue; not yet digitized.
Orléans, Bibliothèque Municipale 230 (201)
s. IXmed
fol. 1-182v
Ms. O Fleury; catalogue; one page digitized.
Oxford, Bodleian Library Bodley 543 (2588)
s. XIIex
fol. 1-10
Worcester or Ramsey; not yet digitized.
Oxford, Bodleian Library Hatton 40 s. XIIex
fol. 6-160v

Worcester; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Oxford, Bodleian Library lat. theol. c. 3 s. Xmed
2 fol.
Ms. C
part of Ms. Cambridge, University Library E.e. 2.4; Glastonbury; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Paderborn, Erzbischöfliche Akademische Bibliothek (Theodoriana) I 280

Paris, BN lat. 2157 s. XI1/3 fol. 8-171 Ms. Pi St. Martial, Limoges; catalogue; image.
Paris, BN lat. 2941
s. XII
fol. 29-66

St. Martial, Limoges; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Paris, BN lat. 4210
s. X
fol. 1-152v
Ms.P1  Fécamp; catalogue; image.
Paris, BN lat. 4211 s. XI
fol. 2-138
Ms. P2 catalogue; not yet digitized.
Paris, BN lat. 4212 s. IX/X
fol.1-166 Ms.P3  Moissac; catalogue; image.
Paris, BN lat. 4213
s. IX2
fol.1v-180v Ms.P4  catalogue; image.
Paris, BN lat. 4214 s. XIV
fol. 1-27

fagment; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Paris, BN lat. 12638
fol. 1-62
Ms.P5  lacuna between ch. 25 and ch. 64: Cluny; catalogue; image.
Paris, BN lat. 13798
s. XV
fol. 1-173

St-Germain-des-Près; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Paris, BN n.a. lat. 1466
s. XVI1
fol. 39-146

Cluny; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale 765
s. XVI
fol. 1-318v

Jumièges; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Silos, Archivo del Monasterio 1
s. IXex
fol. 1-271
Ms. S Silos; Hill Manuscript Library
Silos, Archivo del Monasterio frg. 5-16
s. X
several fragments

Nájera (possibly same Ms. as Archivo Historico Nacional Clero. Carpeta 1030, num. 24, see above); Hill Manuscript Library
Saint-Omer, Bibliothèque Municipale 548
s. XIV
fol. 1-136v

St-Bertin; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Troyes, Bibliothèque Municipale 280
s. XII
fol. 1-146v

Clairvaux; catalogue; image (search for Smaragdus)
Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek M. ch. f. 184
fol. 5-77v

St. Stephan, Würzburg; catalogue; not yet digitized.
Valenciennes, Bibliothèque Municipale 285 (275)
s. IXex
fol. 2-123
Ms. V St-Amand-les-Eaux; catalogue; image
Valvanera, Archivo del Monasterio s.n.
A.D. 954
fol. 1-120v
Ms.Vv Valvanera or St. Millán de Cogolla
Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana reg. lat 1025
s. XII
fol. 1v-114v
Ms.Va Vendôme; not yet digitized.
Vienna, Nationalbibliothek Ser. nov. 4287
s. IX/X
2 fol.


St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek 277 s. IX
from ch. 25.3 (Fructuosus, Regula monachorum, ch. 15)
St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek 914  
s. IXin
pp. 191-192
from ch. 25.3 (Fructuosus, Regula monachorum, ch. 15)
and from ch. 59.7.

Literature (for more, click here):
  • Barry, David, ‘Smaragdus of St. Mihiel and His Commentary on the Rule of Saint Benedict’, in: Tjurunga: An Australasian Benedictine Review 36 (1998), pp. 3-9.
  • Dubreucq, Alain, ‘Smaragde de Saint-Mihiel et son temps: Enseignement et bibliothèques à l’époque carolingienne’, in: Mélanges de la Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne 7 (1986), pp. 7-36.
  • Kardong, Terence P., ‘The Earliest Commentator on RB: Smaragdus on Benedict’s Prologue’, in: American Benedictine Review 55 (2004), pp. 171-193.
  • Kardong, Terrence P., ‘The sources of Smaragdus’ Commentary on RB 3: Calling the brothers to Council’, in: American Benedictine Review 60:3 (2009), pp. 253-275.
  • La Corte, Daniel Marcel, ‘Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel: ninth-century sources for twelfth-century reformers’, in: Cistercian Studies Quarterly 41:3 (2006), pp. 273-290.
  • Leclercq, Jean, ‘Smaragdus’, in: P.E. Szarmach (ed.), An Introduction to the Medieval Mystics of Europe: Fourteen Original Essays, Albany, NY 1984, pp. 37-45.
  • LePree, James, ‘Two Recently-Discovered Passages of the Pseudo-Basil’s Admonition to a Spiritual Son (De admonitio ad filium spiritualem) in Smaragdus’ Commentary on the Rule of St. Benedict (Expositio in regulam s. Benedicti) and the Letters (Epistolae) of Alcuin’, in: The Heroic Age. A Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe 11 (2008), online.
  • Löfstedt, Bengt, ‘Zu Smaragdus’ Kommentar der Benediktinerregel’, in: Arctos 18 (1984), pp. 37-43.
  • Mazal, Otto, ‘Ein neues Fragment der Expositio in regulam S. Benedicti von Smaragdus von St. Mihiel’, in: Scriptorium 13 (1959), pp. 210-216.
  • Ponesse, Matthew D., ‘Editorial practice in Smaragdus of St Mihiel’s commentary on the Rule of St Benedict’, in: Early Medieval Europe 18 (2010), pp. 61-91.
  • Ponesse, Matthew D., ‘Smaragdus of St Mihiel and the Carolingian monastic reform’, in: Revue Bénédictine 116:2, (2006), pp. 367-392.
  • Ponesse, Matthew, ‘Standing Distant from the Fathers: Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel and the Reception of Early Medieval Learning‘, in: Traditio 67 (2012), pp. 71-99.
  • Rädle, Fidel, Studien zu Smaragd von Saint-Mihiel, München 1974.
  • Scharf, Joachim, ‘Studien zu Smaragdus und Jonas’, in: Deutsches Archiv 17 (1961), pp. 333-384.
  • Semmler, Josef, ‘Zur Überlieferung der monastischen Gesetzgebung Ludwigs des Frommen’, in: Deutsches Archiv (1960), pp. 309-388.
  • Steidle, Basilius, ‘Der Rat der Brüder nach den ältesten Regula Benedicti-Kommentaren des Abtes Smaragdus (+ um 826) und des Magisters Hildemar (+ um 850)’, in: Beiträge zum alten Mönchtum und zur Benediktinerregel, Sigmaringen 1986, pp. 221-236.